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Field Sobriety Tests: Nystagmus Test

By San Diego Attorney on December 5, 2016

One of the most common Standardized Field Sobriety Tests used by police to determine if probable cause exists for a drunk driving arrest is the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) test. This test works by measuring a driver’s eye reflexes when asked to look at a moving stationary object at a close distance, allowing officers to look for certain key signs of intoxication.

How Does the Test Work?

Nystagmus is the medical term used to describe an involuntary twitch of the eyeballs which occurs when a person looks sideways at an angle greater than 45 degrees. When a person is under the influence of alcohol or certain drugs, this jerking become more pronounced and can occur at angles less than 45 degrees.

To administer the test, an officer must first check a driver’s eyes for any resting nystagmus, equal pupil size, and the ability to equally track and object with both eyes. If a driver cannot do any of these things, there is a possibility that they have an existing medical condition which may render the test result unreliable. To properly administer the test, an officer must hold a small object rough 12-15 inches away from a driver’s nose, usually a flashlight or pen, and slowly move it from side to side while the driver follows it with their eyes.

Officers will look for several signs of intoxication, including:

  • A lack of smooth pursuit
  • Eye jerking before reaching a 45 degree angle
  • Eyes jerking within four seconds while gazing all the way to one side

Are HGN Tests Accurate?

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has determined that HGN tests are reliable as long as they are administered by a police officer who has had proper HGN training. If a subject’s eyes are not properly visible, if they are facing blinking lights or oncoming headlights, or if the subject has their eyeglasses on at the time of the test, the results could be skewed. It is also important to note that HGN tests are not pass/fail, but merely a way for police to gain a possible indicator of a driver’s intoxication. For this reason, many states do not allow the test to be used as evidence in a court of law.

Charged with DUI? Call JD Law

If you have been arrested and charged with driving under the influence (DUI), it is imperative you contact a powerful criminal defense attorney as soon as possible to guard your future and freedom. Having been guarding the rights of the accuses for more than 30 years, our powerful San Diego DUI attorney can contest the evidence against you and provide the top-notch advocacy you need to minimize your chances of conviction.

Find out more about what our Board Certified Criminal Law Specialist can do for you by calling our office at (760) 630-2000 or by scheduling a free consultation.

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A note from James N. Dicks:

Although COVID-19 has caused great uncertainty, we want to assure that our firm is operating remotely to accommodate all current, past, and future clients in need of any of our services. The best way to communicate with us is by telephone (760) 630-2000 or email info@jdlaw.law.

Currently San Diego Superior Courts are closed but are set to reopen on Tuesday May 26th, 2020 barring any
future orders.

Do not hesitate to contact us with any questions. Sending our thoughts and best wishes to you and your family. Please follow us on Facebook for any future updates.


Aunque COVID-19 ha causado una gran incertidumbre, queremos asegurarles que nuestra oficina esta operando de forma remota para todos los clientes actuales, pasados y futuros que necesiten alguno de nuestros servicios. La mejor manera de comunicarse con nosotros es por teléfono (760) 630-2000 o por correo electrónico a info@jdlaw.law.

Los Tribunales Superiores de San Diego están cerrados, pero están programados para reabrir el martes 26 de mayo de 2020, salvo una nueva orden.

No dude en contactarnos si tiene alguna pregunta. Estamos enviando nuestros pensamientos y mejores deseos para usted y su familia. Síganos en Facebook para seguir siendo informado de novedades nuevas.


James N. Dicks
jD LAW, P.C.

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COVID-19 Announcement

Although COVID-19 has caused great uncertainty, we want to assure that our firm is operating remotely to accommodate all current, past, and future clients in need of any of our services. The best way to communicate with us is by telephone (760) 630-2000 or email info@jdlaw.law. Do not hesitate to contact us with any questions. Sending our thoughts and best wishes to you and your family.


Aunque COVID-19 ha causado una gran incertidumbre, queremos asegurarles que nuestra oficina esta operando de forma remota para todos los clientes actuales, pasados y futuros que necesiten alguno de nuestros servicios. La mejor manera de comunicarse con nosotros es por teléfono (760) 630-2000 o por correo electrónico a info@jdlaw.law. No dude en contactarnos si tiene alguna pregunta. Estamos enviando nuestros pensamientos y mejores deseos para usted y su familia.

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